Puto’s Plan for American Energy Impotence

April 29, 2019

Robert Francis “Puto Pendejo” O’Dourke’s plan for American Energy Impotence…

Democratic presidential candidate O’Rourke lays out $5 trillion climate plan

[…]

The plan lays out a series of executive actions that would reverse the “energy dominance” policies of President Donald Trump…

What’s the opposite of “dominance”?

  • impotence
  • incapacity
  • powerlessness
  • submission
  • surrender
  • weakness
  • yielding
  • inferiority
  • subordination
  • modesty

Puto appears to be going for “all of the above”…

O’Rourke’s measures include U.S. re-entry into the Paris Climate Agreement, ordering a reduction in methane emissions from oil and gas operations, halting new drilling leases on federal land and restoring pollution standards for power plants.

Unless Puto plans to carve out an exception for Federal waters, this would quickly gut the nation’s #2 source of new oil production.


But, Puto’s plan for energy impotence apparently wasn’t impotent enough…

[T]he upstart Sunrise Movement, the youth-led group that has pushed the Green New Deal into the spotlight, said O’Rourke’s plan fell short of what they said scientists said was necessary to fend off the worst impacts of climate change.

The Green New Deal calls for achieving net zero emissions within a decade, not by mid-century, as O’Rourke’s plan sets out.

“Beto claims to support the Green New Deal, but his plan is out of line with the timeline it lays out and the scale of action that scientists say is necessary to take here in the United States to give our generation a livable future,” said Sunrise founder Varshini Prakash.

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The Little Ice Age

April 4, 2019

The Little Ice Age (LIA) was most likely the coldest period of the Holocene Epoch. In Central Greenland it was roughly the same temperature as it was during the Bølling-Allerød glacial interstadial.

The modern rise in atmospheric CO2 lagged behind the warm up from the LIA.

The LIA clearly appears to be related to a roughly 1,000-yr quasi-periodic fluctuation.

The 1,000-yr quasi-periodic fluctuation appears to be the dominant climate signal of the Holocene.

Davis_Fig_6Davis_Fig_7

The modern warming is statistically indistinguishable from the Medieval Warm Period.

And the climate models demonstrate that anthropogenic CO2 is what saved us from The Ice Age Cometh

Yet we’re supposed to destroy our economy and become good little Marxists because the Hockey Stick-heads say so.

MacFarling-Meure

January 23, 2019

The stabilization of atmospheric CO2 concentration during the 1940s and 1950s is a notable feature in the ice core record. The new high density measurements confirm this result and show that CO2 concentrations stabilized at 310–312 ppm from ~1940–1955. The CH4 and N2O growth rates also decreased during this period, although the N2O variation is comparable to the measurement uncertainty. Smoothing due to enclosure of air in the ice (about 10 years at DE08) removes high frequency variations from the record, so the true atmospheric variation may have been larger than represented in the ice core air record. Even a decrease in the atmospheric CO2 concentration during the mid-1940s is consistent with the Law Dome record and the air enclosure smoothing, suggesting a large additional sink of ~3.0 PgC yr-1 [Trudinger et al., 2002a]. The d13CO2 record during this time suggests that this additional sink was mostly oceanic and not caused by lower fossil emissions or the terrestrial biosphere [Etheridge et al., 1996; Trudinger et al., 2002a]. The processes that could cause this response are still unknown.

[11] The CO2 stabilization occurred during a shift from persistent El Niño to La Niña conditions [Allan and D’Arrigo, 1999]. This coincided with a warm-cool phase change of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation [Mantua et al., 1997], cooling temperatures [Moberg et al., 2005] and progressively weakening North Atlantic thermohaline circulation [Latif et al., 2004]. The combined effect of these factors on the trace gas budgets is not presently well understood. They may be significant for the atmospheric CO2 concentration if fluxes in areas of carbon uptake, such as the North Pacific Ocean, are enhanced, or if efflux from the tropics is suppressed.

MacFarling-Meure, C., D. Etheridge, C. Trudinger, P. Steele, R. Langenfelds, T. van Ommen, A. Smith, and J. Elkins (2006), Law Dome CO2, CH4 and N2O ice core records extended to 2000 years BPGeophys. Res. Lett., 33, L14810, doi:10.1029/2006GL026152.

law19301970

USCPB Stat’s

January 9, 2019

https://www.cbp.gov/newsroom/media-resources/stats

 

 CPB Apprehensions
 Family Units % Increase since 2013  Unaccompanied Children % Increase since 2010
2010                                           18,622
2011                                           16,067 -14%
2012                                           24,481 31%
2013                                15,056                                           38,833 109%
2014                                68,684 403%                                           68,631 269%
2015                                40,053 166%                                           40,035 115%
2016                                77,857 417%                                           59,757 221%
2017                                75,802 403%                                           41,435 123%

 

A Geological Perspective on the “Irreversible Collapse” of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet

January 8, 2019

Antarctic_Melt-0acf6[1]Guest post by David Middleton

A Geological Perspective on the “Irreversible Collapse” of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet

It’s “old” news, as this publication from 1999 shows us. Read the rest of this entry »

DISTRIBUTION OF PELAGIC SEDIMENTS

December 27, 2018

kt167nb66r_fig253kt167nb66r_chart01

SJF42

 

DISTRIBUTION OF PELAGIC SEDIMENTS

General Features of DistributionFigure 253 shows the distribution of the various types of pelagic sediments. The representation is generalized partly to avoid confusion and partly because of the incomplete knowledge as to the types of sediments found in many parts of the oceans. Any such presentations of the distribution of pelagic sediments are modified versions of maps originally prepared by Sir John Murray and his associates. Further investigations have changed the boundaries but have not materially affected the general picture. The figure has been prepared from the most recent sources available. The distribution of sediments in the Indian Ocean is based on a map by W. Schott (1939a), that in the Pacific Ocean is from W. Schott in G. Schott (1935), with some revisions based on Revelle’s studies of the samples collected by the Carnegie (Revelle, 1936). The data for the Atlantic have been drawn from a number of sources, since no comprehensive map has been prepared for many years. The Meteormaterial has been described by Correns (1937 and 1939) and Pratje (1939a). Thorp’s report (1931) on the sediments of the Caribbean and the western North Atlantic was used for those areas, and Pratje’s data (1939b) for the South Atlantic were supplemented by those of Neaverson (1934) for the Discovery samples. The distribution in the North Atlantic is from Murray (Murray and Hjort, 1912).

One type of shading has been used for all of the calcareous sediments and another for the siliceous sediments. Unless the symbol P is shown to indicate that the area is covered with pteropod ooze, it is to be understood that the calcareous sediment is globigerina ooze. The siliceous organic sediments are indicated as D for diatom ooze and Rfor radiolarian ooze. The unshaded areas of the oceans and seas are covered with terrigenous sediments.

Various features of the distribution of pelagic sediments should be pointed out:

  1. Pelagic sediments are restricted to the large ocean basins.

  2. Red clay and globigerina ooze are the predominant types of deposits.

  3. Diatom oozes are restricted to a virtually continuous belt around Antarctica and a band across the North Pacific Ocean.

  4. Radiolarian ooze is almost entirely limited to the Pacific Ocean, where it covers a wide band in the equatorial region.

  5. Pteropod ooze occurs in significant amounts only in the Atlantic Ocean.

  6. The width of the area of terrigenous sediments depends upon a number of factors such as the depth and the supply of material, but it should be noted that in general it is more extensive in high latitudes. The North Polar Basin and the seas adjacent to the northern Pacific and Atlantic Oceans are covered with terrigenous sediments. As will be shown later, the terrigenous sediments of lower latitudes are largely composed of calcareous remains of benthic organisms in contrast to those of higher latitudes, which are chiefly made up of mineral fragments.

  7. Although no depth contours are shown in fig. 253, comparison with chart I will show that the distribution of red clay and calcareous oozes is restricted to those portions of the ocean floor with moderate or great depths.

  8. The boundaries between different types of sediments are not distinct, since one form will graduate into another with interfingering where the topography is irregular. However, a glance at the figure will show that the marginal belts are small compared to the tremendous areas of readily classified sediments, and it is for this reason that the system of classification can be considered valid.

Area of Ocean Bottom Covered by Pelagic Sediments.

In table 106 are given the areas covered by the different types of pelagic sediments. The values were obtained from fig. 253. Pelagic sediments cover 268.1 × 106km2 of the earth’s surface, that is, 74.3 per cent of the sea bottom. The calcareous oozes (47.7 per cent), notably globigerina ooze, are the most extensive, with red clay (38.1 per cent) next in importance among the pelagic deposits. Siliceous oozes cover only 14.2 per cent of the total area.

AREAS COVERED BY PELAGIC SEDIMENTS (MILLIONS KM2)
Atlantic Ocean Pacific Ocean Indian Ocean Total
Area % Area % Area % Area %
Calcareous oozes:
  Globigerina 40.1 51.9 34.4
  Pteropod 1.5
    Total 41.6 67.5 51.9 36.2 34.4 54.3 127.9 47.7
Siliceous oozes:
  Diatom 4.1 14.4 12.6
  Radiolarian 6.6 0.3
    Total 4.1 6.7 21.0 14.7 12.9 20.4 38.0 14.2
Red clay 15.9 25.3 70.3 49.1 16.0 25.3 102.2 38.1
61.6 100.0 143.2 100.0 63.3 100.0 268.1 100.0

The percentages of the total area of pelagic sediments in the three oceans covered by the major types of sediments are as follows:

Sediment Indian Ocean Pacific Ocean Atlantic Ocean
Calcareous oozes 54.3 36.2 67.5
Siliceous oozes 20.4 14.7 6.7
Red clay 25.3 49.1 25.8
100.0 100.0 100.0

It will be seen that calcareous deposits predominate in the Indian and the Atlantic Oceans, but that in the Pacific Ocean, which is somewhat deeper, red clay is the most extensive. Of the total areas covered by the three major types of sediments the percentage distribution in the three oceans is as follows:


― 978 ―
Sediment Calcareous oozes Siliceous oozes Red clay
Indian Ocean 26.9 33.9 15.7
Pacific Ocean 40.6 55.3 68.7
Atlantic Ocean 32.5 10.8 15.6
100.0 100.0 100.0

The Pacific Ocean, because of its great size, contains the largest percentage of all of the three types and actually over 50 per cent of the siliceous oozes and red clay.

Depth Range of Pelagic Sediments. Depth is generally considered as one of the factors controlling the distribution of the different types of marine sediments. According to Murray’s classification, deep-sea sediments are restricted to depths greater than about 200 m, and in general pelagic sediments are found only at considerably greater depths. Although there is some difference in the depth distribution in the three oceans, data are not comparable, and the following values for globigerina and pteropod oozes and red clay are from Murray and Chumley (1924), representing the results of studies made on 1426 samples from the Atlantic Ocean. The values for diatom and radiolarian oozes are from Andrée (1920).

Sediment Samples Depth (m)
Minimum Maximum Average
Globigerina ooze 772   777 6006 3612
Pteropod ooze   40   713 3519 2072
Diatom ooze   28 1097 5733 3900
Radiolarian ooze     9 4298 8184 5292
Red clay 126 4060 8282 5407

Although the ranges overlap, indicating that factors other than depth control the distribution of pelagic sediments, it can be seen that radiolarian ooze and red clay are characteristic of depths greater than 4000 m, whereas the calcareous sediments and diatom oozes are generally restricted to the lesser depths.

https://publishing.cdlib.org/ucpressebooks/view?docId=kt167nb66r&chunk.id=d2_6_ch20&toc.id=&brand=eschol

The Oceans Their Physics, Chemistry, and General Biology

H. U. Sverdrup

Professor of Oceanography, University of California
Director, Scripps Institution of Oceanography

Martin W. Johnson

Assistant Professor of Marine Biology, University of California
Scripps Institution of Oceanography

Richard H. Fleming

Assistant Professor of Oceanography, University of California
Scripps Institution of Oceanography
Prentice-Hall, Inc.
New York

1942

https://publishing.cdlib.org/ucpressebooks/view?docId=kt167nb66r;brand=eschol

That 70’s Climate Show

November 20, 2018

I earned my degree in geology (Earth Science) in frigid Connecticut during That 70’s Climate Science Show.  This was very real…

1975-03-01

That 70s

Griff is correct that a 1977 TIME magazine cover did not predict “another ice age.”  The prediction (sort of a prediction) was from a 1974 TIME magazine article… Read the rest of this entry »

Renewable Smack Down

November 1, 2018

Can you see a pattern here?

Renewables are gnats on an elephant’s @$$… Solar is the tiniest gnat.

There has never been an energy transition.

Petroleum

Global proved petroleum reserves continue to rise with production.

Forbes

Proved reserves continue to rise because probable & possible reserves and resources are continuously converted to proved reserves by production and reservoir management.

The world has only consumed about 17% of the total recoverable petroleum.

Billion bbl Recoverable Resources
Cumulative Production Proved Reserves Conven. Unconven.
Asia/Pacific                                          100                              50                         95                             90
E. Europe/Eurasia                                          190                            160                      300                          580
OECD Europe                                            80                              10                         90                             25
Middle East                                          320                            800                      310                             50
Africa                                          100                            120                      190                             50
Latin America                                          100                            320                      190                          320
North America                                          310                            220                      260                       1,700
World Total                                      1,200                        1,680                   1,435                       2,815
Years at 28.1 Bbbl/yr                              60                         51                          100
NA Resources  NA yrs
                 1,960         69.75
Total Bbbl % Prod Un-prod Bbbl %Un-prod
                 7,130 17%                 5,930 83%

Natural Gas

Global proved natural gas reserves continue to rise with production.

Proved reserves are only a fraction of the natural gas that will likely be produced from existing fields.

The US, alone, has 72 years worth of natural gas in existing fields.  Another 70+ years in technically recoverable resources and over 1,000 years in resources that are currently technically unrecoverable…

Coal

Coal reserves are sufficient for hundreds of years…

Coal resources are a bit more difficult to assess.  However, they are fracking YUGE. The USGS has not conducted a coal resource assessment for these United States since 1974.

How much coal is in the United States?

The amount of coal that exists in the United States is difficult to estimate because it is buried underground. The most comprehensive national assessment of U.S. coal resources was published by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in 1975, which indicated that as of January 1, 1974, coal resources in the United States totaled 4 trillion short tons. Although more recent regional assessments of U.S. coal resources have been conducted by the USGS, a new national-level assessment of U.S. coal resources has not been conducted.

The U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) publishes three measures of how much coal is left in the United States, which are based on various degrees of geologic certainty and on the economic feasibility of mining the coal.

EIA’s estimates for the amount of coal reserves as of January 1, 2017, by type of reserve

  • Demonstrated Reserve Base (DRB) is the sum of coal in both measured and indicated resource categories of reliability. The DRB represents 100% of the in-place coal that could be mined commercially at a given time. EIA estimates the DRB at about 476 billion short tons, of which about 69% is underground mineable coal.
  • Estimated recoverable reserves include only the coal that can be mined with today’s mining technology after considering accessibility constraints and recovery factors. EIA estimates U.S. recoverable coal reserves at about 254 billion short tons, of which about 58% is underground mineable coal.
  • Recoverable reserves at producing mines are the amount of recoverable reserves that coal mining companies report to EIA for their U.S. coal mines that produced more than 25,000 short tons of coal in a year. EIA estimates these reserves at about 17 billion short tons of recoverable reserves, of which 65% is surface mineable coal.

Based on U.S. coal production in 2016 of about 0.73 billion short tons, the recoverable coal reserves would last about 348 years, and recoverable reserves at producing mines would last about 23 years. The actual number of years that those reserves will last depends on changes in production and reserves estimates.

[…]

US EIA

This should demonstrate the scale of how much coal there is just in these regionally United States…

The most recent resource estimate is 10 times the demonstrated reserve base, which is roughly 10 times the recoverable reserves at producing mines… And… Despite generating nearly 30% of our electricity from coal, the producing mines have no difficulty supplying more than enough coal.

The world has 1,000’s of years of technically recoverable coal.

Nuclear Fission Fuel

The world has 10’s of thousands of years of uranium resources…

According to the NEA, identified uranium resources total 5.5 million metric tons, and an additional 10.5 million metric tons remain undiscovered—a roughly 230-year supply at today’s consumption rate in total. Further exploration and improvements in extraction technology are likely to at least double this estimate over time.

Using more enrichment work could reduce the uranium needs of LWRs by as much as 30 percent per metric ton of LEU. And separating plutonium and uranium from spent LEU and using them to make fresh fuel could reduce requirements by another 30 percent. Taking both steps would cut the uranium requirements of an LWR in half.

Two technologies could greatly extend the uranium supply itself. Neither is economical now, but both could be in the future if the price of uranium increases substantially. First, the extraction of uranium from seawater would make available 4.5 billion metric tons of uranium—a 60,000-year supply at present rates. Second, fuel-recycling fast-breeder reactors, which generate more fuel than they consume, would use less than 1 percent of the uranium needed for current LWRs. Breeder reactors could match today’s nuclear output for 30,000 years using only the NEA-estimated supplies.

Scientific American

Nuclear Fusion Fuel

If nuclear fusion is ever harnessed, the fuel supply is the closest thing to an infinite energy source.

The Tiniest Gnat’s Prospects

Until such time that solar power plants are deployed above the Earth’s atmosphere, solar power has this much of a chance to replace fossil fuels and nuclear power:

 

Cretaceous Hydrocarbon Kitchen

October 30, 2018

Marine black shales, deposited under anoxic conditions are loaded with the stuff that oil is made of…

Total organic carbon (TOC) averaged 10% by weight.

The Cretaceous, in particular, was a hydrocarbon “kitchen.” Marine conditions couldn’t have been more favorable for the deposition of source rocks even if they had been designed for such a purpose…

“DSDP sites at which Cretaceous sediments rich in organic matter were encountered. From Dean and Arthur, 1986.”

Cretaceous Proto-Atlantic

The Lower Tertiary Eocene was also a hydrocarbon kitchen (up to 21% TOC).

There is no shortage of organic matter in the sedimentary basins of the Earth’s crust.

Humans and Sea Level

October 11, 2018

The human race adjusted to the Holocene Transgression without the benefit of much technology…

Civilization adjusted to this…

Industrial society adjusted to this…

Despite the fact that sea level isn’t behaving any differently now than it did in the early 20th Century…

People of the high technology 21st Century are panicked because of this…

Because fraudulent RCP8.5 models predict a physically impossible rise in sea level over this century…

And they’re blaming it all on the reason we have a relatively prosperous world…

The maddening thing is that humans and human civilization coped with far more severe climate changes before anyone figured out how to burn coal, petroleum and natural gas.