Andy May Proxy Resolution Table

June 25, 2019

 

Begin BP End BP Resolution Record Length
-50 8,039 80 8,089
-50 10,914 100 10,964
-50 10,914 100 10,964
-45 9,918 70 9,963
-45 9,918 70 9,963
-45 12,563 70 12,608
-45 12,563 110 12,608
-41 12,010 60 12,051
-10 11,650 20 11,660
0 11,642 40 11,642
0 11,869 80 11,869
0 12,920 80 12,920
0 21,262 90 21,262
3 11,659 50 11,656
14 14,515 120 14,502
20 9,050 50 9,030
21 13,082 100 13,061
38 12,014 20 11,976
62 10,171 110 10,109
88 14,350 110 14,262
100 11,830 110 11,730
100 12,900 100 12,800
126 13,171 60 13,045
169 10,557 40 10,387
360 13,100 40 12,740
442 11,498 70 11,056
450 6,430 70 5,980
510 8,490 60 7,980
520 11,900 60 11,380
554 10,423 110 9,869
567 14,939 90 14,372
690 10,980 80 10,290
698 13,911 40 13,213
Average 75 11,697
Std Dev 28 2,553

 

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Greenland Ice Sheet

June 20, 2019

Graphical catastrophic squawking…

0.42% of the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) has melted since 1900!!!

The GrIS has lost the volumetric equivalent of a Lake Superior worth of ice!!!

Based on the asserted loss of ice since 1900, the GrIS has lost the equivalent of a Lake Superior-sized ice cube. However the GrIs remained larger than the Gulf of Mexico (by volume) despite losing a Lake Superior. The Gulf of Mexico has a volume of about 2.5 million km3. If the GrIS melted, the volume of water would be about 2.71 million km3. Before losing Lake Superior, the equivalent water volume was 2.72 million km3.

Catastrophic squawking, wrti large…

Most of the melting since the beginning of the Holocene has occurred on the outboard, lower elevation portions of the GrIS – Same as it ever was. X-axis is in calendar years AD(BC). Elevation reconstruction data from Vinther et al., 2009. Map from Weißbach et al., 2015.

The image below is a GPR (ground-penetrating radar) cross-section of the GrIS.  It is literally a work of art.  GPR is analalogous in many ways to the reflection seismic data that we use in oil & gas exploration.  If you click on this link, you will see a full-size image of the cross-section.  Note that most of the ice is above the 12 ka horizon.  This is very close to the Pleistocene-Holocene boundary.  It indicates that most of the ice was deposited since the end of the last Pleistocene glacial stage (ice age in layman’s terms).

A Geological Perspective of the Greenland Ice Sheet

According to the “ice sheet goeth” graph, since 2001, Greenland lost about 3,600 gigatonnes of ice or about 3,840 km3 … That equates  to a 16 km x 16 km x 16 km cube of ice (3√ 3,840 = 15.66).  That’s YUGE!  Right? Not really.

It’s not even a tiny nick when spread out over roughly 1.7 million square kilometers of ice surface.  That works out a sheet of ice less about 2 meters thick… Not even a rounding error compared to the average thickness of the Greenland ice sheet.

The average thickness of the Greenland ice sheet is approximately 1.5 km (1,500 meters).  2 meters is about 0.15% of 1,500 meters.

From a thickness perspective, 2 meters looks like this:

When some actual perspective is applied, it is obvious that “the ice sheet goeth” nowhere:

Carbon starvation

June 18, 2019

The Rancho La Brea tar pit fossil collection includes Juniperus (C3) wood specimens that 14C date between 7.7 and 55 thousand years (kyr) B.P., providing a constrained record of plant response for southern California during the last glacial period. Atmospheric CO2concentration ([CO2]) ranged between 180 and 220 ppm during glacial periods, rose to ≈280 ppm before the industrial period, and is currently approaching 380 ppm in the modern atmosphere. Here we report on δ13C of Juniperus wood cellulose, and show that glacial and modern trees were operating at similar leaf-intercellular [CO2](c i)/atmospheric [CO2](ca) values. As a result, glacial trees were operating at ci values much closer to the CO2-compensation point for C3 photosynthesis than modern trees, indicating that glacial trees were undergoing carbon starvation. In addition, we modeled relative humidity by using δ18O of cellulose from the same Juniperus specimens and found that glacial humidity was ≈10% higher than that in modern times, indicating that differences in vapor-pressure deficits did not impose additional constrictions on c i/c a in the past. By scaling ancient c ivalues to plant growth by using modern relationships, we found evidence that C3 primary productivity was greatly diminished in southern California during the last glacial period. using modern relationships, we found evidence that C3 primary productivity was greatly diminished in southern California during the last glacial period.

Ward et al., 2005

 

Comment on Climate change: ‘We’ve created a civilisation hell bent on destroying itself – I’m terrified’, writes Earth scientist

May 26, 2019

I’m terrified’, writes Earth scientist…

He’d have to be a scientist to be an Earth scientist (geologist, geophysicist, oceanographer, meteorologist, etc.).

That episode marked a clear boundary between two stages of my academic career. At the time, I was a new lecturer in the area of complex systems and Earth system science. Previously, I had worked as a research scientist on an international astrobiology project based in Germany.

Neither of which is a real science, much less Earth science.

His Earth scientist “qualifications”…

Qualifications
Postgraduate Certificate in Academic Practice 2015.
DPhil Informatics 2009.
MSc Evolutionary & Adaptive Systems 2005.
BA (hons) Philosophy 1995

Read more at http://geography.exeter.ac.uk/staff/index.php?web_id=James_Dyke#885R5xxfCbLV7EAf.99

He’s just another Malthusian miscreant, without a real job, pining away for socialism…

The idea that growth is ultimately behind our unsustainable civilisation is not a new concept. Thomas Malthus famously argued there were limits to human population growth, while the Club of Rome’s 1972 book, Limits to Growth, presented simulation results that pointed to a collapse in global civilisation.

Today, alternative narratives to the growth agenda are…

Alternative narratives to the growth agenda are… (Multiple choice)

  1. Venezuela
  2. Venezuela
  3. Venezuela
  4. All of the above

Puto’s Plan for American Energy Impotence

April 29, 2019

Robert Francis “Puto Pendejo” O’Dourke’s plan for American Energy Impotence…

Democratic presidential candidate O’Rourke lays out $5 trillion climate plan

[…]

The plan lays out a series of executive actions that would reverse the “energy dominance” policies of President Donald Trump…

What’s the opposite of “dominance”?

  • impotence
  • incapacity
  • powerlessness
  • submission
  • surrender
  • weakness
  • yielding
  • inferiority
  • subordination
  • modesty

Puto appears to be going for “all of the above”…

O’Rourke’s measures include U.S. re-entry into the Paris Climate Agreement, ordering a reduction in methane emissions from oil and gas operations, halting new drilling leases on federal land and restoring pollution standards for power plants.

Unless Puto plans to carve out an exception for Federal waters, this would quickly gut the nation’s #2 source of new oil production.


But, Puto’s plan for energy impotence apparently wasn’t impotent enough…

[T]he upstart Sunrise Movement, the youth-led group that has pushed the Green New Deal into the spotlight, said O’Rourke’s plan fell short of what they said scientists said was necessary to fend off the worst impacts of climate change.

The Green New Deal calls for achieving net zero emissions within a decade, not by mid-century, as O’Rourke’s plan sets out.

“Beto claims to support the Green New Deal, but his plan is out of line with the timeline it lays out and the scale of action that scientists say is necessary to take here in the United States to give our generation a livable future,” said Sunrise founder Varshini Prakash.

The Little Ice Age

April 4, 2019

The Little Ice Age (LIA) was most likely the coldest period of the Holocene Epoch. In Central Greenland it was roughly the same temperature as it was during the Bølling-Allerød glacial interstadial.

The modern rise in atmospheric CO2 lagged behind the warm up from the LIA.

The LIA clearly appears to be related to a roughly 1,000-yr quasi-periodic fluctuation.

The 1,000-yr quasi-periodic fluctuation appears to be the dominant climate signal of the Holocene.

Davis_Fig_6Davis_Fig_7

The modern warming is statistically indistinguishable from the Medieval Warm Period.

And the climate models demonstrate that anthropogenic CO2 is what saved us from The Ice Age Cometh

Yet we’re supposed to destroy our economy and become good little Marxists because the Hockey Stick-heads say so.

MacFarling-Meure

January 23, 2019

 

The stabilization of atmospheric CO2 concentration during the 1940s and 1950s is a notable feature in the ice core record. The new high density measurements confirm this result and show that CO2 concentrations stabilized at 310–312 ppm from ~1940–1955. The CH4 and N2O growth rates also decreased during this period, although the N2O variation is comparable to the measurement uncertainty. Smoothing due to enclosure of air in the ice (about 10 years at DE08) removes high frequency variations from the record, so the true atmospheric variation may have been larger than represented in the ice core air record. Even a decrease in the atmospheric CO2 concentration during the mid-1940s is consistent with the Law Dome record and the air enclosure smoothing, suggesting a large additional sink of ~3.0 PgC yr-1 [Trudinger et al., 2002a]. The d13CO2 record during this time suggests that this additional sink was mostly oceanic and not caused by lower fossil emissions or the terrestrial biosphere [Etheridge et al., 1996; Trudinger et al., 2002a]. The processes that could cause this response are still unknown.

[11] The CO2 stabilization occurred during a shift from persistent El Niño to La Niña conditions [Allan and D’Arrigo, 1999]. This coincided with a warm-cool phase change of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation [Mantua et al., 1997], cooling temperatures [Moberg et al., 2005] and progressively weakening North Atlantic thermohaline circulation [Latif et al., 2004]. The combined effect of these factors on the trace gas budgets is not presently well understood. They may be significant for the atmospheric CO2 concentration if fluxes in areas of carbon uptake, such as the North Pacific Ocean, are enhanced, or if efflux from the tropics is suppressed.

MacFarling-Meure, C., D. Etheridge, C. Trudinger, P. Steele, R. Langenfelds, T. van Ommen, A. Smith, and J. Elkins (2006), Law Dome CO2, CH4 and N2O ice core records extended to 2000 years BPGeophys. Res. Lett., 33, L14810, doi:10.1029/2006GL026152.

law19301970

USCPB Stat’s

January 9, 2019

https://www.cbp.gov/newsroom/media-resources/stats

 

 CPB Apprehensions
 Family Units % Increase since 2013  Unaccompanied Children % Increase since 2010
2010                                           18,622
2011                                           16,067 -14%
2012                                           24,481 31%
2013                                15,056                                           38,833 109%
2014                                68,684 403%                                           68,631 269%
2015                                40,053 166%                                           40,035 115%
2016                                77,857 417%                                           59,757 221%
2017                                75,802 403%                                           41,435 123%

 

A Geological Perspective on the “Irreversible Collapse” of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet

January 8, 2019

Antarctic_Melt-0acf6[1]Guest post by David Middleton

A Geological Perspective on the “Irreversible Collapse” of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet

It’s “old” news, as this publication from 1999 shows us. Read the rest of this entry »

DISTRIBUTION OF PELAGIC SEDIMENTS

December 27, 2018

kt167nb66r_fig253kt167nb66r_chart01

SJF42

 

DISTRIBUTION OF PELAGIC SEDIMENTS

General Features of DistributionFigure 253 shows the distribution of the various types of pelagic sediments. The representation is generalized partly to avoid confusion and partly because of the incomplete knowledge as to the types of sediments found in many parts of the oceans. Any such presentations of the distribution of pelagic sediments are modified versions of maps originally prepared by Sir John Murray and his associates. Further investigations have changed the boundaries but have not materially affected the general picture. The figure has been prepared from the most recent sources available. The distribution of sediments in the Indian Ocean is based on a map by W. Schott (1939a), that in the Pacific Ocean is from W. Schott in G. Schott (1935), with some revisions based on Revelle’s studies of the samples collected by the Carnegie (Revelle, 1936). The data for the Atlantic have been drawn from a number of sources, since no comprehensive map has been prepared for many years. The Meteormaterial has been described by Correns (1937 and 1939) and Pratje (1939a). Thorp’s report (1931) on the sediments of the Caribbean and the western North Atlantic was used for those areas, and Pratje’s data (1939b) for the South Atlantic were supplemented by those of Neaverson (1934) for the Discovery samples. The distribution in the North Atlantic is from Murray (Murray and Hjort, 1912).

One type of shading has been used for all of the calcareous sediments and another for the siliceous sediments. Unless the symbol P is shown to indicate that the area is covered with pteropod ooze, it is to be understood that the calcareous sediment is globigerina ooze. The siliceous organic sediments are indicated as D for diatom ooze and Rfor radiolarian ooze. The unshaded areas of the oceans and seas are covered with terrigenous sediments.

Various features of the distribution of pelagic sediments should be pointed out:

  1. Pelagic sediments are restricted to the large ocean basins.

  2. Red clay and globigerina ooze are the predominant types of deposits.

  3. Diatom oozes are restricted to a virtually continuous belt around Antarctica and a band across the North Pacific Ocean.

  4. Radiolarian ooze is almost entirely limited to the Pacific Ocean, where it covers a wide band in the equatorial region.

  5. Pteropod ooze occurs in significant amounts only in the Atlantic Ocean.

  6. The width of the area of terrigenous sediments depends upon a number of factors such as the depth and the supply of material, but it should be noted that in general it is more extensive in high latitudes. The North Polar Basin and the seas adjacent to the northern Pacific and Atlantic Oceans are covered with terrigenous sediments. As will be shown later, the terrigenous sediments of lower latitudes are largely composed of calcareous remains of benthic organisms in contrast to those of higher latitudes, which are chiefly made up of mineral fragments.

  7. Although no depth contours are shown in fig. 253, comparison with chart I will show that the distribution of red clay and calcareous oozes is restricted to those portions of the ocean floor with moderate or great depths.

  8. The boundaries between different types of sediments are not distinct, since one form will graduate into another with interfingering where the topography is irregular. However, a glance at the figure will show that the marginal belts are small compared to the tremendous areas of readily classified sediments, and it is for this reason that the system of classification can be considered valid.

Area of Ocean Bottom Covered by Pelagic Sediments.

In table 106 are given the areas covered by the different types of pelagic sediments. The values were obtained from fig. 253. Pelagic sediments cover 268.1 × 106km2 of the earth’s surface, that is, 74.3 per cent of the sea bottom. The calcareous oozes (47.7 per cent), notably globigerina ooze, are the most extensive, with red clay (38.1 per cent) next in importance among the pelagic deposits. Siliceous oozes cover only 14.2 per cent of the total area.

AREAS COVERED BY PELAGIC SEDIMENTS (MILLIONS KM2)
Atlantic Ocean Pacific Ocean Indian Ocean Total
Area % Area % Area % Area %
Calcareous oozes:
  Globigerina 40.1 51.9 34.4
  Pteropod 1.5
    Total 41.6 67.5 51.9 36.2 34.4 54.3 127.9 47.7
Siliceous oozes:
  Diatom 4.1 14.4 12.6
  Radiolarian 6.6 0.3
    Total 4.1 6.7 21.0 14.7 12.9 20.4 38.0 14.2
Red clay 15.9 25.3 70.3 49.1 16.0 25.3 102.2 38.1
61.6 100.0 143.2 100.0 63.3 100.0 268.1 100.0

The percentages of the total area of pelagic sediments in the three oceans covered by the major types of sediments are as follows:

Sediment Indian Ocean Pacific Ocean Atlantic Ocean
Calcareous oozes 54.3 36.2 67.5
Siliceous oozes 20.4 14.7 6.7
Red clay 25.3 49.1 25.8
100.0 100.0 100.0

It will be seen that calcareous deposits predominate in the Indian and the Atlantic Oceans, but that in the Pacific Ocean, which is somewhat deeper, red clay is the most extensive. Of the total areas covered by the three major types of sediments the percentage distribution in the three oceans is as follows:


― 978 ―
Sediment Calcareous oozes Siliceous oozes Red clay
Indian Ocean 26.9 33.9 15.7
Pacific Ocean 40.6 55.3 68.7
Atlantic Ocean 32.5 10.8 15.6
100.0 100.0 100.0

The Pacific Ocean, because of its great size, contains the largest percentage of all of the three types and actually over 50 per cent of the siliceous oozes and red clay.

Depth Range of Pelagic Sediments. Depth is generally considered as one of the factors controlling the distribution of the different types of marine sediments. According to Murray’s classification, deep-sea sediments are restricted to depths greater than about 200 m, and in general pelagic sediments are found only at considerably greater depths. Although there is some difference in the depth distribution in the three oceans, data are not comparable, and the following values for globigerina and pteropod oozes and red clay are from Murray and Chumley (1924), representing the results of studies made on 1426 samples from the Atlantic Ocean. The values for diatom and radiolarian oozes are from Andrée (1920).

Sediment Samples Depth (m)
Minimum Maximum Average
Globigerina ooze 772   777 6006 3612
Pteropod ooze   40   713 3519 2072
Diatom ooze   28 1097 5733 3900
Radiolarian ooze     9 4298 8184 5292
Red clay 126 4060 8282 5407

Although the ranges overlap, indicating that factors other than depth control the distribution of pelagic sediments, it can be seen that radiolarian ooze and red clay are characteristic of depths greater than 4000 m, whereas the calcareous sediments and diatom oozes are generally restricted to the lesser depths.

https://publishing.cdlib.org/ucpressebooks/view?docId=kt167nb66r&chunk.id=d2_6_ch20&toc.id=&brand=eschol

The Oceans Their Physics, Chemistry, and General Biology

H. U. Sverdrup

Professor of Oceanography, University of California
Director, Scripps Institution of Oceanography

Martin W. Johnson

Assistant Professor of Marine Biology, University of California
Scripps Institution of Oceanography

Richard H. Fleming

Assistant Professor of Oceanography, University of California
Scripps Institution of Oceanography
Prentice-Hall, Inc.
New York

1942

https://publishing.cdlib.org/ucpressebooks/view?docId=kt167nb66r;brand=eschol